The best part about publishing a book is knowing how it’ll impact students and teachers to make writing and learning a bit easier for everyone. In 2015, I was approached by Rowman and Littlefield editor, Sarah Jubar, to write about English Language Learners. She had read some of my Edutopia, Education Week, and personal blogs and envisioned one book to help students in ELL classrooms.
I had a baby and a toddler at the time, and I didn’t think I could do it. It meant that I would need to write during evening hours. With a lot of support from family, I decided to go for it. I felt that if there was ever a right time for me to write a book, it was now, and I shouldn’t miss out on the opportunity.
Late evenings had me believe otherwise at times. Like many difficult things in life, I pushed through this one, because the final product sounded like such a great reward and well worth sleepless nights.
I am excited it’s finally here! My book is currently out on pre-order on Amazon, and will be out this coming Spring, sometime in April. This book has many amazing contributions from so many great people, and I can’t thank them enough for supporting my work and always championing my cause.
Here’s a summary of my book, if you’re interested in using it in your English Language classroom:
Digital Writing for English Language learners looks at practical ways educators can implement the use of technology in their English and Language Arts classroom for English Language Learners. The book provides a variety of classroom activities and assignments that can be completed with English Language Learners using social media and other digital writing tools. The book also looks at creating a culture that fosters the necessary conditions for student voice to thrive in an English Language Learners’ classroom.
The book is available to be pre-ordered on Amazon here, in hardcopy and paperback. It’s also available to pre-order on the publishers’ site.
A recent article on The New York Times discussed the “Unspoken Rules Kids Create for Instagram“. The article focused on how kids (middle school, and some high school) had unwritten rules on ways they engage on social media. For example, what types of images to post, how often, etc.
The one thing that stood out to me was how these rules were known amongst kids themselves, and actually had to be explained to the adults. We as adults, sometimes have the perception that kids don’t understand what it means to engage in a responsible way online. The rise of digital awareness and even being cognizant of cyberbullying issues in today’s youth could be as a result of the education that kids are receiving about digital literacy.
However, I do think it’s also as a result of technology serving to be a great communication tool that allows kids to have access to social media, where they can see issues like bullying, prejudice, racism, sexism etc, being heavily covered.
Of course parents play a huge part in helping to raise the kids’ awareness of positive digital engagement and self-representation online. A recent study by Common Sense Census found that parents overwhelmingly have a positive attitude towards the use of technology and social media as tools to improve kids’ education and their development of important social skills.
Parents agreed that technology positively supports their children with schoolwork and education (94 percent). Parents also felt that technology can support their children by supporting them in learning new skills (88 percent) and preparing them for 21st-century jobs (89 percent). Parents agreed that technology increases their children’s exposure to other cultures (77 percent), allows for the expression of their children’s personal opinions and beliefs (75 percent), supports their children’s creativity (79 percent), and allows their children to find and interact with others who have similar interests (69 percent). Only 54 percent of parents felt that technology supports their children’s social skills.
This is interesting, because it suggests that parents *do* see the importance of technology and the impact it can have on teaching and learning.
However, the study also found that those parents who are concerned about their kids’ social media/technology use were less aware of their kids’ activities on devices/online.
What does this all mean?
It means several things:
The more parents/guardians talk and discuss the use of devices and social media with their kids, the more their kids use the “rules of engagement” on social media.
Discussing digital literacy and social media use in the classroom and schools helps students.
We have to trust kids once they’re given all our own “rules of engagement” on social media. They ultimately will make the right decision.
Talk to kids more. Ask them questions about what they do on social media, why do they do it…Questions should be judgement free…and kids will only open up if they do feel it’s safe to open up.
So when it comes to social media and rules of engagement, kids are basically figuring out ways to better communicate with each other. To them, and this should also apply to adults, there is no difference between online and real life. Their actions online should replicate their actions in real life. From an educator’s perspective, it’s important to see that many students have already come to this understanding themselves. Then it doesn’t become a conversation about “digital citizenship”, it becomes a conversation about what it means to be a “good citizen/human”.
We discuss collaboration in different spaces a great deal in and outside of education. We talk about the benefits of collaboration, the importance of it, and how it can look like. But do we ever discuss the downside of collaboration?
Do we ever spend enough time to focus on how collaborative spaces can be equitable and inclusive for everyone?
A few years ago, I collaborated with a White “prominent” education leader on an initiative. I mention that he’s white, because his part played a huge role in silencing me throughout the initiative. So race here is a vital aspect, as I do identify as a Muslim woman of colour. Therefore, to have a hand in the direct oppression and silencing of women of colour, one needs to identify the systems and identities at play in the work structure.
We were aligned on the mission and vision for the project in many different ways, except one: Equity.
Like many projects I’ve led, I shouldered the workload myself. Taking initiative on starting and executing on the project tasks. I was under the impression we were clear on what all members in the group (we had other members, but him and I were the main ones working on this, since we initiated it). Apparently, I was wrong.
He emailed me the week before the event was to take place asking me to back out and cancel it, since we “weren’t aligned” on major decisions, despite my and the team’s efforts to communicate them. Long story short, I refused to cancel what was a great project. I had to carry the torch for the entire group, to not fall apart, and ensure the success of the event.
Because when things fall apart, there almost always is a person there to pick up the pieces. And that’s often the work that needs to be done.
As a result of that I learned the importance of understanding and aligning yourself with equitable practices when entering collaborative spaces.
You might be thinking: “Well, I only work with good people, who won’t do what this guy did”.
We don’t *really* know someone unless you work closely with them. Even then, you still might not fully know them.
I’ve learned that collaborative spaces first and foremost need to ensure equity before starting the work process.
For me, as a mom, it’s so important that my kids read diverse books in school and at home. Diverse books allows children to see that there is not one variation of what it means to be human. We’re all different, and representing that really well in books helps children to develop an understanding, empathy, and kindness of other cultures, races, and ethnicities around them.
The other day, when we went to our public library, I couldn’t help but notice the amazing display of diverse books in the children’s section. My two girls are almost 5 and almost 3, and they loved listening and looking at the pictures of these three stories:
A little while ago, a large publishing company consulted with me to get advice on how to engage their audience and build interest-based communities.
Here is a snapshot of the framework I presented to them.
Your social media’s growth cycles are incremental to exponential, it embodies ripple effects to create organic growth cycles. These cycles form from your campaigns, publications, and projects.
What are these cycles?
Empower voices — Amplify voices — Engage voices.
Editors create opportunities for smart domain experts to create content on publications as writers. This empowers both parties’ voices as leaders.
What kind of voices do we empower? publication editors, current active writers, domain experts, thought leaders, external writers/editors/journalists, educators, students, budding writers, great ideas.
Who are some of the people who would be interested in working on your platform?
What kind of interest do they have?
What domain do they belong to, if any?
How can they help to support growth and development of communities/publications?
How are they perceived in their community? Credibility/reputation/status/charisma etc…
How can we leverage their support?
Are there any risks involved in leveraging their support?
The week before elections, I was invited to speak to The Hun School of Princeton students in New Jersey about the concepts of Grit and Resilience. The Hun School works to read 1 or 2 common books each year and have a conference about the theme of the books. This is such a neat way to get all students to connect to each other despite their grades and subject interests. It’s also a nice way to build a school community, by focusing on one theme as a school, you can see how everyone brings in their own experiences, interests and shared stories.
This year’s books that were chosen were Unbroken, by Laura Hillenbrand for the upper school, and Left for Dead, by Pete Nelson, for our middle school.
When we hear the word “literacy” immediately some of the things that come to mind are: books, reading, writing, libraries, and maybe even magazines, newspapers. But we all know that’s not what encompasses literacy. Literacy moves beyond reading and writing. It includes the process of deciphering symbols, patterns, images to understand and come to meaningful conclusions about complex contexts, cultural understanding, and communication.
Do our students know that “literacy” moves beyond reading and writing?
Most importantly, how do we begin to break our traditional understanding of literacy to include wider meaning and contexts?
It has to start in the classroom. For many of our traditional classrooms, reading and writing are the core values that are focused on when it comes to literacy. We need to show students that “Literacy” moves beyond reading and writing and can encompass: cultural literacy, media literacy, visual literacy, digital literacy and much more.
According to Media Smarts, in 1987 Ontario was the first canadian province to mandate media education. The media strand still focuses on core strands such as oral communication, and reading and writing. However, it also adds an extra layer of including media mentor texts, media audiences, and media productions to strengthen students’ learning when it comes to reading, writing, and critical thinking.
Leaving something that you have done for so can be a very challenging thing to do. There is a lot of initial denial, grief, and heartache. But it can also be a very rewarding step that you take to a new beginning.
Many years ago, I wanted to become a teacher not because I loved teaching so much, but because I wanted to make a difference in students’ lives. I wanted to make a difference in education, and be part of an industry that impacts students everyday. Social justice, social impact, and equity were my core passions, and I believed that education was the most appropriate place for me to make a difference.
Growing up as an English Language Learner and a refugee myself, I related to many of my students. I wanted to improve the learning conditions for them in the classroom. As an English professor, I asked myself daily: “How can I make a difference in students’ lives today?” Luckily, I taught English and Literature, and as English teachers, we use writing as a tool to empower our students’ thoughts and ideas.
The world woke up on November 9 to the news that Donald Trump is America’s next president.
This is a nightmare to everyone who has been insulted and assaulted by Trump and his supporters. It’s a nightmare to Black people, Muslims, LGBTQI communities, women of colour, immigrants, Mexicans, and many marginalized groups who have been wronged and will continue to be wronged so long as he’s in power.
I received many emails and messages from teachers asking how they should help their marginalized student population. Many educators are grieving. This is not to say that Clinton was the perfect candidate, in fact, she was far from perfect. Clinton has played a huge role in what’s currently going on in the Middle East and North Africa. However, Trump is a bigot, a racist, a xenophobic, a misogynist, and he isn’t trying to hide any of it. In fact, he’s encouraging it.
You're going to see a lot of hate, I shared this a while ago but it's timely now. A guide on how to intervene. https://t.co/nCItpkGMLy
When I was in grade 6, we had a social justice activist visit our classroom from South Africa. He shared his story of being part of the movement against the apartheid, how he was imprisoned, and the massive impact the apartheid had on his family, his country, his people. I remember listening very intently to his story, with my limited English at the time, and feeling a sense of connection.
I connected with him, because his story was heartbreaking, and communicated a sense of loss and tragedy. I also connected with him, because he was not home. He was telling his story to kids (and adults) who did not share his struggle and hardship.
I looked around the room and noticed the impact it had on my peers. I saw right then and there that he was making a difference, by educating my peers on an issue they did not know about.
In my new role as Executive Director of The Writing Project, I started working directly with teachers recently to help them introduce and discuss the refugee crisis in their classrooms. For several of the teachers I worked with so far, they wanted their students to learn about the crisis, but aside from knowing statistics and facts, the teachers wanted the students to hear a story from someone who’s experienced being a refugee.
Of course, it’s never easy to share my story with others, whether they’re adults of kids. It’s always difficult and brings back a lot of sad memories. But I also struggle with sharing my story, because I don’t want it to claim who I am as a person. I continue to share my story though, because it has shaped me to become the person I am now. But I share my story, because I want to raise awareness about this issue. I hope that when the kids hear my story, they’ll learn to be more empathetic to others who look different than they do. I hope that by sharing my story, kids will understand the importance of learning about other cultures. I hope that by sharing my story, I dismantle stereotypes and assumptions that society has created about refugee, Arabs, Muslims, and the Middle East.
Global storytelling can have such a powerful impact on students, and I am lucky to be able to connect to these students, their teachers, and more importantly their reflections and takeaways from the experience of hearing my story, and learning about the refugee crisis.
Global storytelling doesn’t end with just telling a story. It’s so important to me that I connect with the teacher to figure out her goal of wanting to have the call with her class. What learning outcome is she aiming to achieve? What have the students been learning in class thus far about the refugee crisis? What were their thoughts so far about the issue?
It’s also important that students reflect on the topic and the experience. Some of the students whom I connected with were so excited to start writing about their takeaways. In fact, during our Skype call, they were so curious and had so many questions, that they guided the discussion with their questions. I was so surprised and happy to see how respectful the students were in listening and asking the questions. And most of them were very mindful that this is a topic that’s difficult for me to share.
Pernille Ripp already wrote about her classroom process and their takeaways from studying the refugee crisis. I really looking forward to reading all their responses and the teacher’s reflections from the whole experience. It’s so important that students write reflections about the topic, and if they can and are able to, to share these reflections. I believe that it is by sharing our ideas that we can connect with others and make a difference, and they can do that by writing and sharing their work with their peers and even digitally.
Working with Fabiana Casella, an EFL teacher and an ICT Specialist from Argentina, and her students on their cross-curricular world project on the refugee crisis was so rewarding. Seeing her students’ writing and ideas about the topic meant the world to me. It meant that students are listening, and are aware of this issue, and they’ll be working hard in their own worlds to make a difference. With Fabiana’s class, I recorded myself reading my story that was published on PBSNewshour. They then had many questions for me, which Fabiana recorded and sent, to which I replied to them in writing. You can check out Fabiana’s classroom project here.
I just received a video from @FabianaLCasella's students telling me they ❤️ my writing & "keep being you" & my day couldn't get any better🤗💖
When I saw that speaker, and was able to connect with him, that moment stuck with me forever. Global storytelling with students is such a great way to connect students to the issues and topics that are being discussed in class. Global storytelling is also such an incredible way to help other students feel a sense of belonging, assurance, and affirmation of who they are, and what they believe in.
Rusul Alrubail is the executive director of The Writing Project, a platform that helps to empower the voice of young learners with critical thinking and digital literacy skills to be their own advocates.
Pernille’s class did a unit on the refugee crisis, and I was honoured to share my story with 3 of her classes. I love the process that she did to guide her students through the topic. By having students debate, discuss and ask questions about a topic that’s causing a great deal of discussion, outrage, and intolerance is so important to help students see and understand the urgency of the situation. Please have a read and I hope this Pernille’s lesson inspires you to start the conversation with your students.
I grew up in a home that had a newspaper on our table every morning. Laid out for us kids to see, we grabbed the comics first, then the Danish news. I was a teen when I started reading the international news. Being aware of the world was something that was expected of us, after all, Denmark is a small nation. We read the paper, we listened to the radio, we watched the news. Not always fully attuned but always aware of at least some of the bigger things happening in the world beyond our own.
Being a globally aware and invested teacher is something I have tried to live and breathe for many years now. After all, the Global Read Aloud was created with the idea of making the world not only smaller, but also more interconnected to create more empathy and kindness. My students have therefore in varying…
Being an English language learner, in middle school, was a really difficult experience. I had many questions about my identity, and who I was as an individual. This was a result of the language shift, but a culture shift played a huge role in this complex narrative that played in my head as well.
As a result of this experience, it was so important for me (the teacher) to create a safe classroom culture where students can explore, discuss and more importantly, express their identity. One of the important benefits from being able to discuss one’s identity is for students to feel confident in who they are as individuals. At the same time, identity exploration in the classroom can help students to also develop an appreciation for diversity in their communities and ultimately be more empathetic for others.
A teacher can help to facilitate an activity in the classroom that focuses on identity expression by using prompts to get the conversation started. For example: ask students to explore some theme questions that deal with identity, such as “Who am I?” “What do I care about?” “What do I want others to know about me?”.
In this episode I chat with Rusul Alrubail. Rusul is an education writer, consultant, and blogger who is currently working on The Writing Project, a platform that fosters and nurtures student literacy and voice. Prior to her work with the Writing Project Rusul was a Professor at Seneca College who taught English and literature courses to first year college and undergraduate students. Rusul is a big believer in the power of student voice to create positive changes in people’s lives.
Listen in to what Rusul had to say about her current work – going from being a college Professor to working with #EduColor and Edutopia (building communities at the Writing Project), pronouncing her name properly and the importance of addressing people by their proper names, her story and the motivation/inspiration to do a TED talk, #EduColor (inclusive collective that focuses on issues of race and culture in education), the positives and negatives of her work with EduColor, her experiences/perspectives with racism (via gender), the importance of hearing diverse stories (getting to know different cultures and who people really are), her blog site, and what she would say to someone to help them get motivated/inspired (become aware of why you don’t feel motivated and then take a step back).
Through years and years of silencing, I learned that people’s hidden biases will attempt to silence the voices of women of colour. Society has conditioned them to believe that our voices do not fall under dominant hegemonic cultural expectations, and therefore aren’t worthy of being heard.
I chose this image of Black Muslim sister, Blair Imani, getting arrested for peacefully protesting in Baton Rouge. While silencing of women of colour explicitly and violently happens daily, in protests, activism, policing and other racist acts, the silencing of women of colour also happens on a daily basis implicitly, professionally, and silently.
I am struggling to write this post, because I don’t exactly know what I should be sharing about my experience with being silenced by whiteness. If you’re reading this, and are not familiar with the concept of whiteness, please read here.
So here’s a list of “don’t” to everyone who’s ever been involved in the systemic silencing of women of color. When you see this happening to anyone, don’t stay silent. Speak up and tell them it’s wrong to silence women of colour.
Don’t take our ideas without giving us credit.
Don’t use our voice to further advance your agenda.
Don’t interrupt us.
Don’t tell us we can’t do something. Especially when we worked so darn hard to do it already!
Don’t stop us from doing anything.
Don’t speak about diversity when you’re not interested in hiring people of color or getting them on board of your organization.
Don’t use our voice.
Don’t ignore us. We’re here. And we’re going to get louder.
Don’t steal our work, thoughts, tweets, and writing. We know when you do.
Lastly, and this is a do: Celebrate with us.
Why is there so much hate? Hate that won’t even be recognized as hate?
Why not amplify our accomplishments instead of trying to put us down, or worse, ignoring it all together?
Yes, this is an angry post. I am tried of dealing with this every single day. I am tired of watching my strong, beautiful sisters of color dealing with this on a daily basis. It’s discouraging, and dehumanizing.
Be a source of empowerment and positivity. Don’t suck our energy, discourage and silence us.
The summer of 2014 I received a phone call that would forever alter my career as an English professor. The chair of my department called me to tell me that the college will be getting rid of contract faculty starting January 2015. Of course, I was a contract faculty there. My heart dropped. My mind raced.
“Why? Does that mean I won’t be teaching anymore?”
“Faculty will have an option of either going part time (6 hours a week) or sessional (over 15 hours).” My chair answered.
“Okay” I stammered, “that’s not so bad, perhaps I can make it work”.
“I am glad you’re looking at it from a positive light, if you have any questions, I’ll be in my office this week”.
And the space and timing were ripe for her message: We live in an era when people who are different are treated unfairly, when people of color have to defend their mere existence. Yet, we can all do something about it.
Take the education technology world. One of the major criticisms of ISTE, known as “the premier education technology conference,” is its lack of racial and ethnic diversity among speakers. That’s why Benjamin’s speech was such a groundbreaking and historic moment. Her fearless voice shattered the facade that this event is solely about technology in education. Instead, she shifted the focus to the heart of what makes education so vital: how we can help build a system that supports students and all their identities.
Benjamin called us to fight against oppressive systems in education, which she described as “parallel realities where some are nurtured and others are crushed.” She then reminded us that our inaction can be just as hurtful as outright support of those systems’ inequities and injustices. This point stood out to me, and I kept wondering what we, as educators, can do to change unjust conditions in education for students and teachers of color.
I caught up with her later that evening to chat about empowering voices in the education community and speaking out on such crucial issues as equality and social justice. I took away a few key points on how educators can work to bring about social change and justice in our classrooms and schools.
“In a sense the limitations of Orientalism are, as I said earlier, the limitations that follow upon disregarding, essentializing, denuding the humanity of another culture, people, or geographical region.” ~ Edward Said
The first time I read Edward Said’s “Orientalism” was when I was doing my Master’s in Literature, back in 2008. I remember signing up to do a seminar about it. I also remember my professor guiding me to refute Said’s argument. That the West “others” the East because of their admiration of our goods, culture, ethnicity, and beauty.
I didn’t know any better, and did so much research that week in order to formulate an argument I didn’t believe in. Here is what I believed in:
The West others the East, and there is nothing good about that.
Colonialism is wrong now matter how you put it.
During that seminar, my own people argued against me. Or in better terms, schooled me. What’s shocking, is that I didn’t feel like I’ve failed, or embarrassed. I felt like this was the first time ever someone was showing me how to have a proper conversation about race. Conversation that involved theorizing and synthesizing.
Audre Lorde calls for our silence to be transformed into language and action in her 1977 speech. But if our silence will not protect us, then why do we hold on to it for comfort? Why do revert to silence when we witness, see and read about the injustices and cruelty of this world? Why do we let fear take over? Why do we let compliance sink in?
There are many reasons for silence. But I am not looking to hear reasons and excuses for your silence or lack of action. I am here to tell you that while educators dominate the Twitter-sphere with their skyrocketing number of tweets and followers, only a small fraction of those tweets are dedicated to discussions on racism, social justice, inequity, Islamophobia, homophobia and other systematic prejudices. Conversations are happening, but they’re a very minor, and often times you see them in spaces where people of colour have already paved the way for them, such as on #EduColor and#SoJustEdu.
Pew Research Centre published survey results on social media conversations about race. According to the survey, “two of the most used hashtags around social causes in Twitter history focus on race and criminal justice: #Ferguson and #BlackLivesMatter”.
So then why are educators so silent when it comes to race conversations?
As we get ready for a new start to the school year, we look back on some of the most important issues to cover, and learn more about how to support educators and students to reflect on some of the best practices for supporting their own growth of understanding the world around them. Equitable pedagogical practices and culturally responsive teaching happens with intentionality and purpose. So it’s important to be mindful of focusing on marginalized issues that we rarely hear about and discuss in the classroom and schools. With that, I am honoured to interview Dr. Jenny Kay Dupuis to discuss ways to support aspects of Indigenous learning in the education system, and how we can each make an impact through knowledge and action on First Nations, Métis and Inuit issues.
How do you view the term ‘reconciliation’? What question(s) should we be asking ourselves when it comes to supporting reconciliation?
Nearly eight months after the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC’s) Final Report was shared, organizations across Canada are looking for meaningful, authentic ways to support Sections 62 to 65 of the report which focuses on areas of education and reconciliation. Although we talk about the concept of reconciliation between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous Canadians, we need to make an enduring commitment to go beyond ‘just talking’ about reconciliation. We need to seek out authentic opportunities to respectfully listen to and understand the complexities of histories (“community memories”) and how it has impacted today’s generation, so that as citizens and caring school-community leaders, we may have the opportunity to move towards action-oriented change and fulfill reconciliation in a meaningful way.
As a matter of principle, we need Indigenous voices at the forefront to help others understand the accuracy of details and the authenticity of values. For many years, Indigenous people’s voices were silenced due to the impacts of assimilation policies. Considering this, we need to ensure that Indigenous people have a place where their voices are at the centre of this conversation.
So the questions that we perhaps need to ask ourselves include: (1) “How do we respectfully maintain the momentum that is driving us towards change?”; (2) “How can we all make a conscious, genuine effort to ensure there are spaces and places for Indigenous peoples to be part of this change?”
I had an interview last night with Shelly Sanchez for her BamEd Radio show. The topic was The Teacher Challenge: Strategies to help migrant and refugee students feel comfortable in the classroom. It’ll be aired in a few weeks, but after doing the interview I had a chance to reflect on our conversation.
I told Shelly that discussing the topic of refugee and immigrant students is one that is special to me, while I feel passionate about the topic, it also brings back a lot of unhappy memories. Memories of fleeing our country. Memories of arriving to Canada and going through a huge learning curve and culture shock in school. So while I feel very passionate to help teachers help refugee and migrant students, it comes at a cost that requires a lot of self-care and other healing strategies. In a way, discussing and writing about this topic has been a strategy for me to cope and heal.
Being a refugee at the age of 11 has taught me so much about teaching, learning and meeting the learning needs of my own students when I was teaching.
Here are some strategies to try out in the classroom to help create a culturally responsive environment for all students:
I was just chatting with my sister about first day of school, our fears and anxieties about our kids starting kindergarten and daycare! For those of you who know, I am currently full-time at home with my two young daughters. My oldest, 4 will start kindergarten this September, and my youngest 2.5 will start daycare for the first time.
I am dreading so much of it and I never thought that I would feel this way when the day finally comes when I don’t have my days full of juggling kids activities, shopping, playgrounds, and so many other things that keep me occupied with them throughout the day.
This post was originally published on Edutopia as a part of the #EduColor series on race, equity and social justice.
To understand English-language learners’ need for equitable education, we must first look at the dramatic increase in the numbers of ELLs in U.S. public schools. Between 1997-1998 and 2008-2009, the number of ELLs in public schools increased by 51%. However, the general student population only grew by 7% (Center for American Progress). ELLs are the fastest-growing student population with approximately six million currently enrolled in public schools (TESOL International Association).
Consequently, equitable practices both in and out of the classroom must be implemented to ensure that English-language learners get a fair opportunity not only at learning, but also at excelling in learning.
Ensuring Fair Assessment
With all of the standards and testing that teachers have to conduct in the classroom, it’s important that we ensure a fair assessment for ELLs. When we assess this population, we must remember to separate language skills from content skills. Some of these language skills include vocabulary, comprehension, phonology, grammar (syntax), and meaning (semantics). Content assessment focuses on whether or not the student was able to grasp the subject matter. Duverger (2005) suggests that “another way of disentangling the effects of language proficiency on content proficiency is to have a double scale of criteria: criteria relating to the content being delivered and criteria relating to the language being used.” This is a helpful strategy as it allows the teacher to create some sort of scale or rubric to easily identify the language skills during and after assessment.
Providing Students With Quality Instruction and Resources
To many ELLs, the learning opportunity that they receive is different than their native-speaker counterparts. Research suggests that effective English-language learning classrooms foster a strong environment of collaboration, dialogue, and group engagement. It’s important that students have multiple opportunities throughout the day to engage in conversational-style learning with their peers so that they can practice their oral language skills. Working collaboratively also fosters a culture of community in the classroom.
Research shows that ELLs can experience two categories regarding the quality of instruction:
This blog was originally published on The Guardian. While Eid al-Fitr was last week, these activities can work well with another upcoming Eid al-adha to help cultivate a feeling of belonging and safety for Muslim students and students of colour in the classroom.
As fasting in the holy month of Ramadan draws to a close, some 1.6 billion Muslim people around the world will celebrate Eid al-Fitr on Wednesday 6 July 2016.
When translated from the Arabic, Eid al-Fitr means “festival of breaking the fast” and traditionally lasts up to three days.
As families and communities across the UK prepare for the celebrations, teachers might be wondering how to bring the festival to life in their classrooms. Some pupils might not be familiar with the meaning and significance of Eid to Muslim students. It’s important to create a safe and mindful environment where all students to feel comfortable, and those who practise Islam can celebrate.
Explanation: Choose a topic that you’re interested in writing about. If your teacher gave you the topics, think of a specific aspect of the topic you’d like to discuss. For example, if you’re writing about “Social Media”, ask yourself: What about social media do you want to discuss?
Example: Your topic here would combine the two: “Social Media and social justice activism”. More specifically, maybe you’re interested in discussing:
“trending hashtags that relate to a specific social/political cause”
Why is your topic important? What is your research topic?
Convince us why this topic is important and why we should care about reading it. Provide some facts, research, examples, or a powerful quote.
ex: With trending hashtags such as #BlackLivesMatter #YesAllWomen and #IdleNoMore, social media has become a powerful tool for social justice activism.
Before my class started blogging and creating digital stories, they had many questions regarding online use of blogs, social media platforms, and YouTube. Some students, rightfully so, were concerned about their privacy. Some students were more concerned about their communication and the digital footprint they would be leaving. As a result, before we were all comfortable with displaying our work digitally, we needed to address these concerns.
When it comes to digital citizenship, there are several elements (including elements of digital literacy) that are important to discuss and understand. Mike Ribble identifies 9 digital citizenship elements. In my classroom, I found myself covering the following:
I did a TEDx on May 14 at Kitchener, Waterloo. My talk discussed the need for each of us to find and share our voice. Through my own experiences moving through the Middle East and eventually settling in Canada, I attempt to show the power of finding and sharing your voice even when others may try to suppress it, calling on educators to enable their students with love and empathy.
I’d love to hear your thoughts and if you have had any similar experiences of adversity in your life.
I am at #ISTE2016 today with The Writing Project team. We arrived last night at 9 pm, but it was 11 pm EST (my timezone). So I was a bit tired but it was still so exciting. This morning we had breakfast with #Edumatch and #Edspeakers members!
I heard from many educators that when we attend ISTE, it’s important to pace yourself and make sure that you’re getting some downtime from all the conference events. The conference has yet to officially start, but I have created a few goals to get out of #ISTE2016 this year, and I hope this list helps you:
Connect with my PLN one of the most important things for me is to connect with my professional learning network. It’s so important for me to connect with people whom I’ve already connected with online. After all, if we know each other online and are in the same space, why not say hello and meet face to face? Connecting with our PLN is still one of the most amazing and fascinating experience for me when attending international conferences.
Share the Learning This may be a bit obvious, but often times when you’re at a conference, it gets super busy and we might not have enough time to actually tweet, Periscope etc. So my goal is to be intentional about it, but to also enjoy the moment.
Go with the Flow Which brings me to my next point, go with the flow! I plan on going with the flow and being okay with that. If a conversation happens that stops me from going to a session, I’ll be fine with that, because after all, some of these most spontaneous moments can create the best connections.
Make time for Downtime I learned today that it’s important to take some downtime from all the excitement. It can get a little overwhelming, meeting people, having conversations, getting stopped in the hallway, so I plan on visiting the Blogger’s Cafe for some relaxing time, and who knows, maybe I’ll even get to write a blog post.
Here is what happened today at the #EduMatch/#Edspeakers meetup:
I finally got to meet my amazing friends Shelly Sanchez, Sarah Thomas, and Valerie Lewis. And many other fabulous educators. I feel so lucky to be here, not many educators have this opportunity to connect, share and learn at such a large event.
We also hosted the #Edumatch / #Edspeakers meet up which was such a success! Valerie, Sarah and Shelly stressed the importance of finding your passion and communicating your passion to others. Most importantly help others to see that educators can be entrepreneurs, and be passionate about creating projects that make a difference. We then discussed the importance of #Edspeakers and why we need to have diverse voices in education to speak, present and be influencers.
Have you ever walked into a room full of people and you were the only one that looked visibly different? If you haven’t, chances are you’re lucky, maybe even privileged to not have ever been in this position, but I encourage you to read on and walk in my shoes for a bit. If you have, I know how you feel.
Years and years ago, as a muslim student of color, life was tough. My struggle wasn’t because no one looked like me, my struggle was that many students looked like me, but none of my teachers did. Why does that matter? Research suggests that we are biologically wired to empathize with people who look like us. Teachers could not understand what it was like being me, a former child refugee, now struggling to learn english and make friends.
Fast forward years later, I am one of the very few muslim women who work at my college, and the only one in the department of English and Liberal Studies. All this, combined with being a new young teacher, led me to feel very isolated, in a profession where I needed collegial support the most to retain my enthusiasm and positivity for students. Of course, my colleagues were wonderful, but this wasn’t about them being good human beings or not, this was about my wanting to relate to someone on the same level of experience, mindset, and background. So I tell my students this: “We discuss social justice and equity in the classroom to help raise awareness that these issues directly touch our lives, and if we don’t speak up for ourselves, then who will?” My students all agree and in fact voice this same sentiment to me in so many ways. Some of them are international students, some of them are English Language learners, many of them are students of color, some of them are white students who come from disadvantaged backgrounds, some of them hope to make a difference. They are my students, and I love them all, and I care about issues that touch them on a daily basis.
We are all impacted by equity and social justice issues, some of us are more impacted than others. Teaching about these issues helps raise awareness, and allows students to think critically about their stance on such topics. Teaching about equity and social justice issues though also makes our teaching and our pedagogy relevant.
And since those issues were near and dear to my heart, it was a great surprise to me that they weren’t discussed at all when I became a connected educator on Twitter. Twitter was and still is a great way to connect and learn from many educators globally, but the lack of discussion of equity and social justice created that same feeling of walking into that staff room and felt like I didn’t belong. One day, I saw tweet inviting us to join a chat focused on racial and social justice in education. I was very excited and added it to my calendar. That evening, when I joined #EduColor’s first chat and I also discovered the importance of joining affinity groups in education. Joining the chat led to my invite to join #EduColor movement as a member and most recently, a steering committee member. #EduColor is a movement that focuses on issues of race, culture and ethnicity in education. We advocate for equity for students and teachers of colour and other marginalized individuals whose voices rarely get heard. As a result of joining #EduColor, I feel supported, empowered and driven to continue to advocate for issues I truly feel passionate about. Probably the biggest benefits of joining #EduColor is building close relationships with educators who have had the same struggles I’ve experienced. Their support and constant wisdom truly does empower an educator in the classroom. Here are a few tips on how get started with teaching about Equity & Social Justice issues:
My favourite part of teaching English has always been the freedom that comes with teaching it. As an educator, I never feel like I am bound to specific rules or instructional strategies when it comes to teaching writing to students. As explained in Reading & Writing in the Disciplines, writing is a process that students work on to improve over time. My goal as an educator has always been to empower students to believe that their writing voice is important, and that they have something to say. This epiphany didn’t come to me easily though. My students, many of them are struggling writers and a lot of them are English Language Learners, have a hard time engaging critically with works of literature: short stories, novels, etc. When students can easily engage with the text by reading, they have a much easier time writing about that same text.
One day during a writing workshop, as I was helping one student decide what topic to write about, I found that I was asking him a lot of questions. My questions were scaffolded, and they moved from description to analytical questions. As the student answered each question, he was able to discover his focus. The success of using inquiry to strengthen students’ writing is also what led me to create The Writing Project.
Here are some examples of questions to ask students to help them to understand and interpret text:
How many times did you come home and still did school work or thought about that student that was just way too chatty in class? Teaching is one of those jobs that is very hard to avoid bringing home. Some teachers do manage to leave work at work, but for the majority of us, it’s constantly on our mind. We often get so caught up with our roles as teachers that we don’t have time to look to learn things outside of our own professional development. A while ago, this was something that was on my mind constantly, I wanted to learn about something completely new outside of teaching. And for a while, I had no idea what that may be. This required me to reflect about my own personal interests outside of teaching that I wanted to extend.
I decided to reflect with my students: what are The Ingredients of Me? We decided to do this activity to find out a bit more about ourselves outside of our current roles: teacher, students, parents, brothers, sisters, and much more. Our discovery led us to think that even though we might only be doing an activity we enjoy as little as 8% of the time, this might be something we’d like to further develop.
Here are a couple of things that I want to learn more about that can also be transferred into teaching and the classroom:
Writing Join a local writing shop to write with others and get feedback on your writing. If you’re a teacher blogger this can help you improve your writing, but also motivate you to be consistent in writing. There are many local writing workshops that are free to join, some are in the evenings some are on weekends. My favourite ones are 1 hour a week, where writers meet to just write solid writing for one hour, then they can choose to share their writing or not, but in this way, it’s not time consuming and pushes us to actually focus and write. One bonus benefit of local writing workshops is that most of them are held in local coffee shops, so it’s a very relaxed, no-pressure type of environment.
Photography During a local neighbourhood Fall fair, I discovered that there are several photography classes near my area. While these are courses and require more commitment, if one has the time to devote to learn something new, why not? The classes for beginners are especially interesting because they go over the basics. The basics help you sharpen your skills even when taking a simple picture of your classroom, or an activity you completed with your students. Your Instagram friends will start asking you for tips!
Design Thinking I only learned about Design Thinking as a process about 3 years ago. So when I joined the Design Cofounders team, and witnessed how they apply to on a day to day basis to solve problems, I saw how useful that knowledge can be in and outside of education. Design thinking is a very solution-oriented process and this helps with forming and shaping our understanding of problems on a day to day basis. However, the biggest benefit of learning about Design Thinking, is the process itself. Its emphasis on iteration, collaboration, brainstorming, feedback, solution-based thinking and most importantly, empathy are all skills we can benefit from on a daily basis.
Digital Communications This is the most fun topic for me to learn about and explore, and probably the biggest! Digital communications is so much more than using social media daily. There are so many aspects of digital communications that we can delve into and they directly impact how our students see information transmitted to them everyday. Community building, engagement on social media, digital literacy, infographics, illustrations, all impact how we see information and understand it. Now you’re wondering how you can learn about all of this? Diving into social media and building your own digital presence through profiles, writing, sharing and collaborating can teach us a lot. You can also check out the articles here and select an angle that fits with your interests.
Our interests define who we are as people, and it’s only human nature that we work to connect our learning with our daily roles. It’s really important for educators to look outside of education for knowledge but also for hobbies. It helps us to de-stress, step outside our immediate work pressures and focus on something new. This helps us to feel rejuvenated and renewed when we enter the classroom, because not only can we share our knowledge with our students, but to step outside our comfort zone and gain a new perspective.
When we write, it’s important that we try and think about the reason why you’re writing your point. This helps us to stay focused on making our point clear to the reader, and helps to push our thinking to the next level. Instead of focusing on “what” and “how” the story was told, think about “why” this point is important for the readers to know about.
This moves writing instantly from beingdescriptive to beinganalytical. Analytical writing means that critical thinking is used to communicate a strong message.
Your analysis allows the reader to understand your point of view, but also to be able to form their own perspective and opinion about your ideas. This helps to make your writing stronger and more engaging.
Isolation in the classroom is a serious feeling that many teachers suffer. I was definitely one of them. I felt very isolated when I started teaching and could not relate to most of my colleagues. There was very little time for colleagues to meet in person and a lack of PD opportunities. Many of them were great teachers, but I needed to connect, collaborate and share thoughts and ideas on teaching.
When I became digitally active and connected, I realized that many windows of opportunity opened up for me all at once. Being connected and active on the digital sphere means a lot more than occasionally maintaining social media accounts. It means connecting with like-minded individuals who share your interest and passion in teaching and learning. This sharing is a two-way street: you learn and you give it right back by sharing your knowledge.
As a whole different world of opportunity opened up to me by being a digitally connected educator, this translated into improving my pedagogy and teaching strategies in the classroom. It also allowed me an opportunity to really reflect on my teaching, make sure it’s relevant, and pass on the knowledge of digital citizenship to my students.
There are so many available pathways for professional development that teachers can seize without having to rely on their school or department. Teachers can take charge of their own professional development by taking advantage of the following opportunities:
This post was originally published on Annenberg Learner Foundation Blog. See the rest of the article here.
This is a guest post by Ethan Miller. Ethan is a dedicated private ESL teacher. Apart from his passion for teaching, Ethan loves to write and holds a degree in creative writing. When he is not teaching or writing his book, Ethan loves to blog and is a huge fan of educational technology. You can check out his blog Essay Writing Tips and Help on WordPress.
Being a teacher is a tough job. Handling kids in classroom, planning lessons, preparing tests, correcting test papers, attending parent teacher meetings and teacher conferences – all this while trying to cover the vast syllabus prescribed for the academic year…Phew! Things can become a tad bit overwhelming.
But apart from the above demands of a teaching job, a teacher is also responsible for the overall academic growth of students. And in order to help a student perform better, a teacher needs to use the tools of feedback and criticism. Criticizing comes easily to most of us, but a majority of teachers fail to come up with constructive criticism, often leaving students feeling angry or worthless. Even if the intention is not to be harsh, feedback can convey the wrong message to students if not delivered correctly. And this, in turn, can have an adverse effect on their behavior.
Constructive criticism ensures that your message is conveyed without hurting the feelings of a student and gives them direction to improve. Here’s how you can master the art of constructive criticism:
Don’t make it personal
When you are giving negative feedback, try not to point out the old mistakes of the student as it will make him/her feel miserable. We all have biases and you may not be fond of a certain student, but that bias should not come in the way of constructive criticism. Talk about the issue at hand, rather than making personal remarks and criticizing the student.
Mind your tone
When we criticize, we tend to go overboard and pay little attention to the tone of our speech. A sentence can be interpreted differently depending on the tone. Always use a friendly or nonjudgmental tone while conveying a difficult message to a student.
As a result of the civil war in Syria, more than 4 million people have fled Syria since the conflict started. This situation, along with war and injustice in other countries such as Iraq, Somalia, Afghanistan, Sudan and many more, has resulted in a global refugee crisis. As refugees seek to move to safer places, countries struggle with managing the flow of people and the issues that arise when new communities are introduced to existing ones.
With trending hashtags such as #RefugeeCrisis #SyrianRefugees and #RefugeesWelcome and a U.S. presidential election on the horizon, there is no doubt that students encounter such devastating stories on social media and the news, and multiple views about how countries should (or shouldn’t) help refugees. I decided that I have a duty to help my students understand and critically engage on such topics, as they do impact our lives.
However, I am also wary that I need to help my students learn how to identify biases and different perspectives when reading, researching, and engaging with such topics. The media and news contain a lot of information that needs to be questioned and analyzed before helping students to form their own opinions about the issues at hand.
Here are some steps I used to guide students through a research project:
“I started writing because there was an absence I was familiar with. One of my senses of anger is related to this vacancy – a yearning I had as a teenager… and when I get ready to write, I think I’m trying to fill that.” –Ntozake Shange
#DecolonizeHistory is about storytelling that disrupts space to present narratives that have been actively silenced or neglected. #DecolonizeHistory is a Toronto-based sticker-art project aimed at interrupting space, addressing colonial roots and undoing processes of white supremacy. Historical narratives within mainstream discourse are presented without the context of colonization, slavery and imperialism, despite the fundamental role they play on all aspects of life. Within these erasures, there are narratives we are told at the expense of silencing other narratives that are actively unrepresented. We are taught to honour the anti-apartheid work done by Nelson Mandela, while we are simultaneously taught to…
Empathy truly touches the heart of people in many unimaginable ways and makes us see potential and believe in others. I was asked who was my favourite teacher, and I realized that it’s not so much a favourite teacher that has impacted me, but it’s all favourite moments of a display of empathy from my teachers that have stuck with me and truly impacted me as a person.
In grade 5 one of my teachers gifted a book for the summer for me, it was a harder level than my English at that time but she said “I know that by the end of the summer, you’d be reading it”. That was so powerful because I ended up reading it. Her believing me in me and displaying that belief through her empathetic actions is what drove me to read the book.Ms. Fujimoto, I’ll always remember when she asked me if those boys in my group were bothering me. They had been bullying me for a few weeks and we were in a group together. After I told her they called me names, those boys never bothered me again. There are many other memorable moments that stayed with me and made me the person I am today. They all have one thing in common: empathy.
Empathy truly does impact people in so many beautiful ways. We just need to recognize it and own it.
Being empathetic takes patience. It takes time. It doesn’t come easily.
Being empathetic also requires us to asses our biases. What do we truly think? Why? How can we change this perspective to help us understand others? Do our own beliefs and biases prevent us from understanding and even empathizing with others?
Reflecting inwards helps us to perform better outwards.
When we’re empathetic, we touch more than minds, we touch hearts. And that can make a world of difference.
The #MyWorkflow series asks educators who are active creators on social media to share how they do their work. Today we speak to Rusul Alrubail, a renaissance educator who does just about everything. Currently dedicated to being a full time mother to her beautiful daughters, Rusul remains incredibly active in education through her writing and connecting. If she’s not facilitating an Educolor Twitter chat or writing another powerful piece for Edutopia, she’s working hard to organize EdCamp Toronto, or blow people away as a featured speaker at the next TEDx education event in Ontario. To make a connection with Rusul is to broaden your pedagogical horizons and worldview.
How do you pay the bills?
I work part time with Edutopia as community facilitator. We engage the community in positive ways, help educators, parents and students when they reach out. I also work with them on copywriting. It’s a fun job that works really well with my schedule and being a full time at home with my two little girls. I am also a freelance blogger and consult occasionally with several organizations. I am also a co-founder of The Writing Project, an essay writing app for students that the Design Cofounders team is currently piloting with several schools and universities. Before that I was a contract professor at Seneca College for 5 years, I taught English literature and composition to undergrads and college students.
My husband is also the founder and CEO of Design Cofounders. That’s also very helpful when it comes to paying the bills.
What regular activity brings you little money but loads of happiness?
Probably freelance blogging for education publications, and writing on my site. I do it because I love writing. It brings me joy because it opens up ideas and conversation to many people, and it always surprises me when someone new engages with me because one of my posts resonates with them. I especially love that they’re usually from somewhere across the world. I also do online webinars and presentations and those are fun too, to connect with other educators.
What’s your current phone? Which phone do you miss? What will be your next one?
iPhone 6s. My next one will probably be another iPhone. I’ve been an apple girls for the past 8 years, it’s what I’m used to. Even though I still dislike the way my photos sync, so I use Dropbox instead. It’s counterproductive but it’s working for now. My husband has encouraged me to go android, he loved how everything syncs with cal and gDoc, but I use those apps on my iPhone anyway. But never say never.
What’s your current laptop? Which laptop do you miss? What will be your next one?
I have a 13 inch MacBook Pro. Before that I had an 11 inch one. The next one will probably be the MacBook light. My husband got one and it’s the lightest, most elegant looking laptop.
What apps and/or methods do you use to stay productive?
I just started using Evernote again after deleting it. I wanted to give it another try. I mostly use Dropbox for photos, google calendar, and Google Keep on my iPhone.
Google Keep was actually my most used app till recently when it comes to brainstorming and outlining ideas for my blogging. Here’s a rough outline of one of my blog posts “the heart of teaching” which was Edutopia’s #2 most viewed blog last year. I had woken up one night with the baby, and an idea came to me and wrote it. You can also see that I omitted some parts in the final post.
Which apps do you check persistently, even if you wish you didn’t?
I check Facebook and I hate it. I joined Facebook because of Edutopia work. Working on Edutopia’s social media requires me to monitor Facebook posts and comments. I don’t like Facebook because it feels noisy for me. I also merged professional connections with family, and I have conflicting feelings about this. It’s a bit too late to go back unless I create an entirely new Facebook account and that’s not happening.
I check Twitter a few times a day to read news and connect with online friends. But I do have my notifications turned off because otherwise they’ll take up way too much of my attention.
“If you present poetry as if it were castor oil, no one will be interested. Instead, teachers can approach it as something fun, and also explore poetry that connects to the students and their lives (as opposed to choosing poetry that they feel “should” be studied).” – Nikki Grimes, inTeaching Multicultural Literature
Poetry is a type of genre with which many students have a hard time engaging. In fact, it’s also a genre that many teachers struggle to teach, as a result of its complexity and form. I, for one, am one of those teachers. Helping students to decipher lines, tropes, and the meaning of poems, while at the same time keeping the lesson engaging was a struggle for me. Consequently, I was a little worried before the start of a poetry unit that my students would be disengaged from the lesson. As a result, I decided to ask students to bring songs, lyrics, or poems that they enjoyed and that conveyed a special message or meaning to them.
To my great surprise, while many students opted to bring song lyrics, a large number of them shared poems that they liked and that resonated with them. One particular student shared Maya Angelou’s “Phenomenal Woman.” As she read it, she started tearing up making for a very emotional read.
I asked her about what made her tear up. She answered me with the following, and I will never forget it:
“We’re always put down by society, men, and sometimes those who love us. It’s why I have this on my mirror, it gives me strength every day to walk into the world as a black woman.”
Maya Angelou’s poem resonated with my student and many students who heard it that day, because it touched on what it means to be a woman of colour in society. The poem challenges traditional notions of beauty constructed by society and elevates the beauty of a woman to which we can all relate.
For this lesson I learned three things.
Never underestimate the interest of students in a certain subject area. It might not be a popular subject or theme or unit, but what students might share may allow us to get to know them and understand them.
Poetry, just like literature, has the power to start an open conversation about issues that students care about and that directly touch students’ lives.
By giving students a choice to bring their own examples, I opened room for discussions about topics that are relevant to them. Our particular conversation taught my students about what feminism means and that everyone, not just women, shares a responsibility in advocating for women’s rights.
Facilitating a conversation by teaching poetry began with sharing selections and samples. To help my students start the conversations, I asked them: Why did you choose the piece? What was so special about it? What resonated with you? From there on it’s crucial to build on that conversation through more questioning, inquiry, analysis, and reflections.
In Teaching Multicultural Literature, workshop 2, “Engagement and Dialogue,” read an interview with writer Nikki Grimes about teaching poetry to students. Also explore methods of teaching poetry to help students engage in the work. Find strategies for helping students to connect with the texts they read, and instructions for how to host an open mic event with students.
The most important thing to remember is to enjoy the experience of teaching poetry and learning with and from students.
Reading: Engaging with complex text. Understanding & Analyzing Texts
Many of our struggling readers have a difficult time reading and engaging with complex text. There are several strategies that can help them to engage in actively reading the text as well as applying critical thinking skills while reading to later engage in writing.
Identify Fiction vs Non-Fiction
One way to help struggling readers to engage with complex text is to first understand the difference between a non-fiction and a work of fiction. We can do this by creating a classroom chart and brainstorming the differences on each side, with some examples.
The chart can include all the elements that make up a story: Setting, characters, themes, etc. As well as the components that make up a work of nonfiction: Thesis statement, evidence, diagrams, labels, research, data etc.
Image BY Reyna Sandoal, TES.com Blendspace
Many of our struggling readers shut down when there is unfamiliar vocabulary, terminology, or concepts in the reading. Familiarizing students with non-fiction by introducing vocabulary and terminology that might appear in non-fictional text can help to eliminate reading road blocks.
This may include elemental and content terminology:
Brainstorm & Categorize Genres:
By helping students become familiar with content specific vocabulary, we are helping them identify which keywords are important to distinguish, and engage with critically, and which words to skip when skimming the text. There are many vocabulary building activities that you can do with the students to help them to remember and understand certain terminology:
Grouping vocabulary words together into categories can help students to understand the different elements of fiction versus non-fiction.
For fun vocabulary activities, think about using social media with students to help them learn vocabulary words.
One activity can be for students to create funny videos or tweets of definitions.
Another strategy is to ask students to locate specific elements in text that define the vocabulary words related to the content of the genre, ie:identify where the evidence is? Underline the topic sentence, etc.
Argumentative writing is one of the most crucial writing for students to grasp, as it provides them with the tools to be able to convey their point of view clearly to an audience.
Argumentative writing also provides an opportunity for students to understand different point of views when reading news articles, opinions and essays. By understanding the structure and logic of argumentative writing, students would soon be able to make a distinction between bias, subjectivity versus objectivity, and all the different logical fallacies that are often used in argumentative writing.
The cornerstone of each argumentative paragraph is a topic sentence. Topic sentence declares to the reader what your topic is. The key to a great topic sentence is to make it clear, concise, and contextual.
For example: Topic: Social Media
Social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, are powerful tools to raise awareness about social and political issues through digital protests using hashtags such as #BlackLivesMatter & #ICantBreathe.
Analyze: It’s not enough to just plop a quote or a statistic to the reader, you need to convince the reader why this piece of evidence supports your main argument. Consider the following: Why is this important? What do you hope to prove to the reader? How does this piece of evidence strengthen your argument?
More explanation: Here is where you provide anymore explanation, logic, research to support your point of view. Did you miss anything? What else can you say that can help the reader understand, more importantly, be convinced of what you’re trying to say?
Counterargument: Many writers are afraid to produce a counter claim to their argument in fear of having their arguments falter right in front of the reader’s eyes. This might be true depending on how you produce the counterclaim. Providing a counterargument shows several things to the reader: That for one thing, you did your due diligence when it comes to research, and you’re aware of the literature on the topic. It also shows the reader that you’re not afraid to debate this issue, because you’ll have facts to support your claims.
The key to providing a strong counterclaim is if you can disprove it by more evidence that further supports your point of view.
For example: There are many sources that suggest digital protests have no real life impact and cannot change people’s mind about racism/prejudice etc. However, here are a few policies that have been changed as a result of these protests: xyz etc etc.
Concluding Sentence: the concluding sentence can be a summary, but to make it more interesting and engaging to the reader, provide your opinion of why you think this issue is important. In other words, answer the big “So What?” question, why should people care about what you’re saying? This doesn’t have to be groundbreaking, but it does need to be specific to be able to connect the readers to your topic.
Write a paragraph that makes an argument about one of the issues that we have discussed in the class so far. Your paragraph can use evidence from the articles we read to support your idea, and can also use evidence from your personal experience. Feel free to adopt any point of view for this assignment.
Gender and gaming industry
Social media to raise awareness about issues (digital protest using hashtags)
Gender roles: domestic and public (home and workplace)
Your paragraph should include: topic sentence, supporting ideas, evidence, analysis of evidence and a conclusion sentence.
It is often said that teaching is an isolated job. Sure, we might not feel this way while we’re teaching — after all, we’re surrounded by our students. The classroom noise, students’ laughter, and busy conversations often make us feel like we’re not alone.
But what happens when class is over? What happens when the students leave? What happens when we are finally standing all alone in the classroom, packing up our folder, laptop, and water bottle, and reflecting on how the lesson went?
Like Molly Robbins, Twitter for educators helped me see that teaching does not have to be an isolated job. In fact, Twitter for educators is about global connections, collaborations, and new opportunities.
Twitter is changing the way of professional development, teaching, and learning in education. So if you’re an educator and would like to leverage the power of Twitter to become connected, there are several areas to focus on in your interactions to create and grow your professional learning network (PLN).
Twitter chats: This is a great way to meet other educators and to discuss similar topics of interest. As a new connected educator, I used to frequent chats a lot. However, I found that the connections that I was getting out of them are much more important than being on the chat itself. In other words, it’s okay to have side conversations on chats, and it’s okay not to answer the posed question. Even more so, it’s okay not to join them all together.
Twitter chats provide the pathway to building these connections, but they’re not what Twitter for educators is all about. Chats can be prone to becoming echo chambers. To prevent this from happening, you can ask tough questions, respectfully challenge others, and build on these interactions. If you’re looking for a schedule of all education Twitter chats, here’s a great one. It’s created and curated by Jonathan Rochelle, co-founder of Google Docs.
Blogging: Tweeting is microblogging. 140-character thoughts on teaching, learning, and professional development. Blogging about the conversations and discussions that happen on Twitter with other educators helps us grow as individuals personally and professionally. Educators are often encouraged to blog their thoughts, then share their work with their network. My first blogging platform was Medium, where I wrote about my experiences from the beginning about becoming a connected educator.
By reading each other’s reflections of classroom practices, we learn from what works and what doesn’t. Twitter offers a strong platform for educators to brainstorm and have discussions, but it also uplifts educators’ voices by providing an outlet to share their writing, thoughts, and ideas, which in turn empowers educators to be autonomous of their professional learning.
When educators share their writing on Twitter, they often tag people that were part of the conversation that they wrote about. Tweets of blog posts are often also tagged with an appropriate subject or Twitter chat hashtag, to open up a tweet to a wider audience.
Signal Boosting: When educators get to know the “Twittersphere,” you’ll notice that people retweet & share a lot of work, resources, ideas, and blogs. Being a new educator on Twitter, it was easy to gravitate towards big names on Twitter to retweet and share. But I slowly began to see that it’s important to boost voices of educators that are marginalized and need support. A retweet may give a new teacher support to extend her network and hopefully answer her question.
Twitter for educators is truly changing the way of not only professional development, but also education as a whole.Educators unite to create increments of change together.And it’s these little changes that give hope to all of us that we’re not alone in making change happen.
This post was originally published on Medium’s Bright.
If you are teaching English Language Learners, here are some tips and strategies that you can practice in the classroom to create a safe environment and support the students throughout their learning process:
1. Speak slower, not louder: Students need to process the words separately and form an understanding, for ELL students this requires some extra time. Speaking louder doesn’t help and in fact sounds condescending.
2. Make sure to pause frequently and write out instructions on the board: This gives time for students to think about the instructions and ask questions if they have any. Use the pause time to write the information on the board in case a student has misheard a word or a sentence.
3. Provide short instructions, preferably starting with action verbs, ex: “Write 5 adjectives to describe the main character”. Long instructions overwhelm ELL students, as they will probably need to look up a few vocabulary words, as well as process chunks of information. Short instructions with action verbs are clear and concise.
4. Write key vocabulary on a word wall: The space will create a safe environment for ELL students to ask questions about unfamiliar vocabulary and as a result build their confidence in speaking and practicing their oral communication in the classroom.
5. Check for student understanding frequently: Do not ask “do you understand/is that clear?” Do ask questions about content/instruction: “will you present today or tomorrow?” “Is this list in the correct order?”
By asking the latter students usually will default to “yes we understand”. Instead, go over the material again and summarize it in the form of questions. By doing this you will see that students will start answering together and even explaining tasks/concepts to their classmates. This creates a safe and open culture in the classroom to ask questions.
6. Provide visual guides, and/or infographics: Visuals act as a supplement for unfamiliar vocabulary words as well as concepts. Using them will also support different learning styles in the classroom.
7. Use body language and gestures to express appropriate words: Don’t be afraid to do this! Body language and gestures can help in explaining words, activities and even concepts.
8. Do not correct with negative expressions: For example, “No the verb seen is incorrect.” Instead model correct usage, “Yes, that’s true! We see things differently.” Many ELL students are very shy, because they’re afraid to make mistakes when speaking. By modeling correct communication skills you will be encouraging students to continue to practice their oral communication skills in a safe space free of judgment.
9. Avoid idiomatic expressions and/or sarcasm: These expressions can be confusing for ELL students to understand, because the meaning behind them is figurative as opposed to literal. Sarcastic expressions are especially misunderstood and often taken literally. That is because some cultures do not use sarcasm, and as a result the meaning is lost in translation. However, ELL students love learning about English idioms so devoting a class solely for idioms is encouraged and can be lots of fun!
I came across a community post a few days ago that was inquiring about ways to teach students about social justice in english class. I feel very passionate about connecting the discussions in my english class to issues that have a social and cultural impact. As a teacher, I think this is how we can advocate for students to think critically about issues that concern many of us in real life, and to give them an opportunity to form their own opinions about these issues.
Here is a very short list of some of my students’ and my own favourite short stories to teach in the class. The stories below discuss social, cultural, and racial issues. These stories are relevant to everyday issues that concern all of us and therefore when discussed in class, discussions were lively, interesting and engaging.
I was born in Baghdad. My family was well off and we lived in a nice large home with a beautiful yard. We lived there with my three aunts, grandparents and cousins. The house was so large it fit us all. We even had a small house built in the garden for my aunt and her husband. Then one day I remember being told that I can’t go to school anymore, because we were at war.
I heard about an entire foster home being bombed. They showed it on the news. There were so many children whose lives were lost, souls who had no one to remember them. Were they even real to anyone? Did they exist at all? I remember sobbing as I heard this news. I was 6 years old.
Endless BBC radio news anchor voices still haunt me to this day. We lost our electricity. My family was glued to the radio to hear what was happening: where will they aim at next? How many will be dead? Electricity often goes out at night, to put fear in the heart of the people.
I remember sleeping and hearing bombs and rockets being shot far away, waking up at night and telling my mom I am afraid. She said, don’t worry, they’re not close by, they won’t come near us. She was wrong.
My friend Yassir’s house was bombed. It fell right into their backyard. Baghdad was now officially a target. How can we stay here? Where do we go? My grandpa needed to sort this out, and so we moved into my aunt’s house in our yard. It was new and had a strong foundation. We decided to stay there for the next few days until we figured out where to shelter. People were fleeing, neighbors left. Everything was quiet. Only the sound of air raid sirens and distant rockets, brought us back to our nightmarish reality.
We fled. My mom woke us up that morning at 5 a.m. to travel to the city of Najaf. This was apparently the safest city for now. We had distant relatives there and we stayed at their house. It was winter by then. You see, when you’re young, your concept of time gets distorted. I am not sure how long we stayed in Najaf. But I do remember the horrible conditions we lived in. There was no water or gas, so the heat was scarce in the winter. My grandpa would lug gallons of water with the help of my uncle and bring it to us so we can bathe and use it for food and drinking.
The war tore apart homes, minds and hearts. It took away dreams and realities, and happiness became an afterthought. Iraqis were physically broken, and mentally shaken. The Gulf war shook us to the core, it shook my entire family to the core. We fled, one by one. Until the only people left in our very large house, with a beautiful yard was myself, mom, sister and grandpa.
The Gulf war ended, and after a year we decided to flee Iraq. Iraq was undergoing sanctions, no food or goods could be transported in and out, nor people for that matter. We snuck away one evening, and headed to Jordan. War was over, but the desert between Iraq and Jordan was full of danger. I still remember the navy blue sky with sparkling stars. I looked at them and wondered, how can I feel so scared with those stars above me? And yet I did.
After the Gulf war, there were so many refugees fleeing to Jordan, so there was a lot of discrimination and mistreatment of Iraqi citizens there. Though now it’s totally different as those refugees 20 years ago have built their homes and are raising their families there. My sister and I were not allowed to go to school because we were Iraqi. So we missed out on an entire year of school. We stayed in Jordan for a year, waiting for our sponsorship and paperwork to finish in Canada. My aunt sponsored us to come to Toronto and start a new life.
They say once you’ve settled, and you’re living a good life, you should move on. But can one really move on from such tragic heartbreak? Can one ever move on from displacement, senseless violence, air raid sirens?
When I see images of children refugees now, I feel haunted by them. What haunts me is that these children will grow up and they will be adults who carry on the memories of their reality turned into nightmares. I sob every time I look at them, because even though my nightmare is over, theirs is just beginning. I am heartbroken that they’re suffering and don’t have a home. I am heartbroken that once they reach their new home, if they make it, they might not be welcomed there. And that terrifies me, because feeling like you don’t belong is one of the worst feelings that a human can endure.
This post was originally published as part of the DigiWriMo blog series. You can check out all the blog posts that were contributed here.
I became a digital writer last year. Then I realized that there is more to digital writing than revise, edit and polish. Digital writing is also about digital presence.
I figured this out only after I created my own digital presence on several social media platforms. Before that, my presence as an educator, and as a writer existed through third party mentions of my name and my title: RateMyProf, a college quarterly I helped to edit, and a few other journals to which I contributed to as an editor. But those links lead you nowhere. Other than my name and title, nobody could tell who I was, what my interests were, or even how I look like.
Then I became connected, and my digital presence started to exist.
Does this mean that as a writer I didn’t exist at all because my digital presence did not exist either?
Most of us who live on the digital realm as writers and educators experience two realities. Many might question that their actions, behaviours and interactions online are even considered a “reality”. But I think there’s more to it than us being “online” and “connected”.
People, writers, and educators are connecting everyday to digital realities that are outside their own physical reality. These digital realities come in all forms, shapes and sizes. They are digital hubs, communities, and professional and personal learning networks. They also take the shape of forums, comments, responses, highlights, live conferences, favourites and retweets. They even take form through your bio and profile shot.
Digital Dualism, a term coined by Nathan Jurgenson, speaks about our two separate realities: our digital world and our physical or IRL world. Jurgenson makes an argument that both of these realities are in fact conjoined, and are not separate from one another. So how does writing digitally impact writing?
Digital writers have to consider the platform they use to display their writing. There are many platforms as well as text editors that quickly become writers’ favourite tools to use when writing. Many digital writers start to feel so connected and acquainted with the digital writing tools they use, they start to have a preference. With platforms like WordPress, Blogger, Medium, and text editors such as Sublime and Ulysses app, digital writing is now about the experience itself. Where do I write? Is it an easy to use platform? What do I like about it? All these questions come to mind for digital writers that are trying to create writing.
Social Media Sharing
When a post is finally published, after a few edits, including images, and citing, digital writers share their work on social media and their local networks. The act of sharing adds an extra layer to digital writing. We share so that our writing is read by others. We also share to start conversations, connect with like-minded people, and get recognition for thoughts & ideas. Most people do not like to admit the last point, for many reasons, but in reality, it holds a lot of truth. A major aspect of digital writing is digital audience. Who is reading my writing? What would they think? should I change something to fit their mindset? Many of these questions might be pondered when writing, but I learned to not worry about what others think when it comes to what I write about. This doesn’t come easy, especially for beginner digital writers, but eventually it’s something to overcome.
Community & Engagement
Another great aspect of digital writing that directly impacts the writer is the community and the engagement that results from writing. As mentioned above, digital presence often accompanies digital writing. When a writer joins a digital community, or professional learning network, they’ll be inclined to share the discussions that occur with the community. These discussions often happen on Twitter and Facebook in the form of posts, conversations, tweeting, retweeting etc. Many writers like to reflect on these discussions by writing their own thoughts.
Digital writing merges traditional forms of writing with the digital world. “Digital” does not refer to the tool. “Digital” refers to our presence on these tools and platforms, how we exist, behave and interact with others using the same space we are.
If you have any questions about digital writing, digital writing tools/platforms, please don’t hesitate to connect with me and ask (@RusulAlRubail)!
Myths in the education system are important to debunk in order to build a better support system for students. The future of education depends on looking at past failures, and not just learning from them to move forward, but to rise upwards. There are several myths in English Language classrooms that are often seen as normal practice.
Identifying these myths will help us meet our students’ needs, and be able to serve them better.
Myth #1: Students cannot use their first language in the classroom
When Advancement Placement and The National Writing Project surveyed teachers regarding social media use in the classroom, they found that 78% agree (26% strongly agree) that digital technologies “encourage student creativity and personal expression”. Digital tools of course give access to social media, which is a powerful outlet in itself to be able to harness in the classroom as a tool for communication. Which the begs the question, why can’t we leverage the power of social media outlets to help strengthen student writing?
Many of us know that with practice comes perfection, especially when it comes to writing. The more we write, the more we get great at writing. Social media can be a tool where students are encouraged to use their creativity combined with personal expression to improve and strengthen their writing.
With social media taking up such a large space in our lives, many of us question whether it’s impacting our communication skills, more importantly, our students’ communication skills. As an English teacher, a writer, and a mom, I am always worried about the repercussions social media will have on my kids’ critical thinking, writing and personal & academic communication skills.
But I had to pause and think. We worry about social media’s impact, but “impact” itself doesn’t necessarily mean negative impact. I needed to remind myself that the use of social media by students can either have a positive or negative effect.
But what if we focus on and drive the positive impact that social media can have on student communication?
a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned understand each other’s feelings or ideas and communicate well.
My first day teaching an ELL class, I walked in and was very confident that it was going to be the best class ever. After all, teaching college English was going great: we have enriching discussions, students are improving their writing, and often laugh at my jokes. How is this gig any different?! Well, I figured I might need to speak slower, write words on the board and practice a few other tips I learned while studying my TESL certificate. However, I quickly found out that teaching an ELL class for the first time was a world of difference from teaching college English.
I discovered that I needed to focus on building a strong rapport with my students in order for them to feel comfortable to ask questions and practice their writing and conversational skills. These teaching strategies are important to focus on in all levels of ELL classrooms.
“Good morning, how was your weekend?”
“Oh, you went to see a movie? What was it about? Did you like it? Why not?”
“Did you bike here? Oh that’s awesome, is it easy to bike in Toronto? Where do you leave your bike?”
If you are discussing a story, textbook, article, or a person, you need to introduce and mention the name of the subject and source. For example, “In the book, ‘Of Mice and Men’ the theme of loneliness is prominent to our understanding of the characters.”
Make an Argument:
Your thesis needs to be debatable. If no one can disagree with you, it’s a fact not an opinion.
Use the Active Voice:
Instead of “it has been said” tell us who really said this “The New York Times indicates…”. This is affirmative, informative and clear.
Outline Your Main Points:
This is called signposting because it signals to your reader the points that will be covered throughout the essay.
A thesis statement is your point of view. No one can speak for you but yourself! Be creative, inspiring, and powerful with your thoughts and ideas.